The need for effective and rapid bone regeneration treatments is crucial now more than ever, due to the ever-rising number of bone defects and fractures. Conventional bone regeneration like grafts suffer from a shortage of available donors as well as added complications due to the immune rejection of the grafts.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals produced after burning wood, coal, garbage, gas and oil. PAHs might occur naturally from sources like volcanoes and forest fire or they might be produced by various human activities. More than 100 PAHs are known and many of them are very common around us. The smoke of a cigarette, meat cooked in high temperature, naphthalene - the toilet deodorizer and asphalt covering the roads, all contain PAHs.
The term vaccine needs no introduction to most people living in the 21st century, but vaccines are also widely used for preventing diseases in animals like cattle and Foot and mouth disease is one such disease, which affects hoofed animals like cow, pigs, goat and sheep.
Within the body of any multicellular organism, including humans, there is a bustling array of cellular interactions happening at any given point of time. While there are many ways by which cells communicate with each other and other entities in the body, the underlying mechanisms of cellular communication remain fairly unique across species, organs and cells. One such mechanism utilizes the unique interaction between complex carbohydrates and cellular proteins as the “recognition software” for cells interacting with pathogens, toxins, and other cells.
Bangalore of the yesteryears was a city of gardens; cool, pleasant and green. In addition to the 2000+ species of trees -- some natural and some specifically planted -- individual gardens in small households contributed to the large biodiversity here. The undulating terrain of the city allowed formation of lakes -- natural and manmade – that were interconnected. As the ‘Garden City’ transformed into the ‘Silicon Valley of India’, the city’s rapid, uncontrolled growth turned this biodiversity haven to a concrete jungle.
Humans are not the only organisms under threat by the malarial parasite Plasmodium. These parasites are known to infect a range of animals from primate to reptiles, theis list also includes birds. In their recent study Scientists from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore have collected these parasites from the blood of various species of birds in the Himalayan foothills. Through their study the team was to show the burden of infection in birds and the seasonality of the infection.
Kala azar or more specifically visceral leishmaniasis is a disease endemic to india. It is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. In India, the organism Leishmania donovani is responsible for the majority of kala - azar infections. Sandflies are the insect vectors through which the parasite spreads in the population. Blackening of skin, enlargement of the liver and spleen with fever are the common symptoms of the disease. After malaria, Leishmania are the second largest parasitic killers in the world.
It was a routine practice in India to give infants a sunbath. But now, many kids remain indoors for a major part of their day, owing to a changing lifestyle. A recent study from Delhi has recommended that infants must be given a sunbath for 30 minutes in a week to attain sufficient levels of vitamin D, that is, 20 nanograms per ml. More than 50% of the Indian population is vitamin D deficient, according to some studies, which is a health concern especially for infants. This is because its deficiency leads to rickets, a malformation of leg bones.
With the increasing use of electrical and electronic devices, the amount of ‘electronic waste’ that we generate is quickly filling up our landfills. Recycling electronic waste or e-waste is a challenge due to the emission of poisonous gases in the process. Now, a new study has designed various adsorbents to be used in the process of recycling by burning the e-waste. By using these adsorbents, the researchers hope, could make the whole process less toxic for the air and for ourselves.