For over a century, India has nutured a host of science and technology based institutions. We capture the timeline of these institutions as they were established.
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Cancer, as a disease, is a puzzle on its own and scientists across the world are looking for hints from all sides to crack it. Now, what if previous research on cancer itself acts as a hint and guides new developments? That is exactly what scientists have done using bioinformatics. By scouting previous research on circulating tumour cells, scientists have identified the molecules responsible for metastasis in cancer. This discovery, they believe, can help not only in understanding the spread of cancer, but also in identifying new drug targets against the killer disease.
The need for effective and rapid bone regeneration treatments is crucial now more than ever, due to the ever-rising number of bone defects and fractures. Conventional bone regeneration like grafts suffer from a shortage of available donors as well as added complications due to the immune rejection of the grafts.
Within the body of any multicellular organism, including humans, there is a bustling array of cellular interactions happening at any given point of time. While there are many ways by which cells communicate with each other and other entities in the body, the underlying mechanisms of cellular communication remain fairly unique across species, organs and cells. One such mechanism utilizes the unique interaction between complex carbohydrates and cellular proteins as the “recognition software” for cells interacting with pathogens, toxins, and other cells.
Smart adaptive actuators are sought after for a variety of mechanical and aerospace applications. Commonly used piezoceramic and shape memory alloy actuators produce small displacements, and hence require motion amplification mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are prone to mechanical play, and are susceptible to wear and tear.
With the increasing use of electrical and electronic devices, the amount of ‘electronic waste’ that we generate is quickly filling up our landfills. Recycling electronic waste or e-waste is a challenge due to the emission of poisonous gases in the process. Now, a new study has designed various adsorbents to be used in the process of recycling by burning the e-waste. By using these adsorbents, the researchers hope, could make the whole process less toxic for the air and for ourselves.
Batteries come in all shapes and sizes, and power the modern world, from the tiny hearing aid and gadgets like wrist watches, smartphones, laptops and camera, to large entities like cars and trucks! Irrespective of their shape, size and function, the working principle behind all batteries is pretty much uniform: two electrodes – an ‘anode’ attracting negative ions and a ‘cathode’ attracting positive ions – connected by an electrolyte, undergo redox reactions to help convert other forms of energy into electrical energy.
Riboflavin or vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin that acts a co-enzyme and is required for cellular respiration. Riboflavin can neither be synthesized by the human body, nor be stored in the body, owing to its water-soluble nature. Thus, we need to regularly supplement the levels of riboflavin in our body through dietary intake. Today, although found in various foods like eggs, green vegetables, milk and meat, there are numerous cases of riboflavin deficiency occurring on a regular basis.
Planarians have fascinated scientists for decades. Their prowess of regeneration allows the planarians to grow entire individuals from a tiny fragment of the body, or for individuals to generate multiple organ systems upon making an incision. Various studies have explored the genetic mechanism behind this regeneration in the organism. In a recent study scientists from Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine have uncovered the function of microRNA's a particular kind of genetic material in the regeneration of brain and eyes in planarians.
India is a country whose population largely depends on agriculture, with 50% of its population being employed in agriculture, and revenue from agriculture and other allied fields contributing 13.7% of our country’s GDP. Most farmers in India face various challenges on a day-to-day basis and disposing off the agricultural residue that remain after a crop is successfully harvested, is one such major issue faced by millions of farmers.